Ethnographic Atlas of the Basque Country

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Grandmother and grandchildren. Urduliz (B), 2011. Source: Akaitze Kamiruaga, Etniker Euskalerria Groups.
House and Family in the Basque Country

House and Family in the Basque Country

The traditional Basque family is noted for a type of clearly defined feminism, which can be seen from the application of the right of the first-born to inherit regardless of their sex, the common ownership of property brought to the marriage by the spouses, their equal standing in civil law, and the woman’s status as the head of the household in the domestic religious life, the cultural rites of the home, of the church and of the family burial ground.
Family Diet in the Basque Country

Family Diet in the Basque Country

Maize, introduced in the 17th century, and potatoes, in the 19th, would revolutionise the Basque diet.
Bushel of maize grain. Source: Ander Manterola, Etniker Euskalerria Groups.
Drawing of lots. Zeanuri (B), 1993. Source: Ander Manterola, Etniker Euskalerria Groups.
Children’s Games in the Basque Country

Children’s Games in the Basque Country

Txirristi-mirristi, gerrena, plat, olio-zopa, kikili-salda, urrup edan edo klik, ikimilikiliklik. Drawing lots chant
Traditional Medicine in the Basque Country

Traditional Medicine in the Basque Country

Pharmaceutical products have gradually replaced traditional cures.
Vaccination against tubercolosis. Source: Municipal Archive of Vitoria-Gasteiz: Ceferino Yanguas.
Nuclear family. Artea (B), c. 1930. Source: Labayru Fundazioa Photograhic Archive: Felipe Manterola Collection.
Rites from Birth to Marriage in the Basque Country

Rites from Birth to Marriage in the Basque Country

Any bachelor, or spinster, traditionally continued to be linked to the homestead and to be an integral part of the family.
Funeral Rites in the Basque Country

Funeral Rites in the Basque Country

A small group of neighbours would watch over the corpse in turns during the night and make sure that the light burning next to it did not go out.
Shroud in a suit. Amezketa (G), 1959. Source: Antxon Aguirre, Etniker Euskalerria Groups.
Shepherd wearing a cape. Eriete (N), 1959. Source: Archive of the Museum of Navarre: Nicolás Ardanaz Collection.
Livestock Farming and Shepherding in the Basque Country

Livestock Farming and Shepherding in the Basque Country

Nolako artzaina, halako artaldea. Every animal ends up looking like their master.
Agriculture in the Basque Country

Agriculture in the Basque Country

Flax fields and market gardens were the areas of the farm that required the greatest care, the pride of the farmer’s property and a cornerstone of the family’s wealth.
Sowing potato with a hoe. Abadiño (B), 2009. Source: Rosa M.ª Ardanza, Etniker Euskalerria Groups.