This volume focuses on traditional agriculture and the great changes that took place in the rural environment over the last decades of the 20th century leading to the current state of agricultural mechanisation.
The first two sections cover the following research areas: agricultural landscape and farmed lands; crop distribution and rotation, and farming year; preparing the land for cultivation, including ploughing, sowing and caring for crops, both for human and livestock consumption; crop harvesting and preservation; cultural practices and customs for growing different varieties of grass and other forage, especially on the Atlantic side of the country, where livestock farming and shepherding have played a prominent role; and also early flax and hemp cultivation.
An entire section is devoted to commonly cultivated species of fruit trees, olives and grapevines in particular, widely grown on the Mediterranean watershed and of such importance for the production of oil and wine.
Farming equipment and implements for working the land, measurement units, workforce and animal power used on the farm, the cart and other means of transport, along with the mechanisation of agriculture are likewise dealt with at length.
The final sections provide a detailed overview of on-farm consumption, agricultural trade, land ownership systems, as well as protection customs and rites.
Fieldwork conducted in 58 localities (Álava: 13; Bizkaia: 13; Gipuzkoa: 7; Navarre: 20; Northern Basque Country: 5). Research campaigns carried out in 2002 and 2003. Date of publication: 2017.